index: [HOME] [Collecting data] [Deduplication] [Screening]


Living Evidence on COVID-19

Contributors: Michel Counotte, Hira Imeri, Aziz Mert Ipekci, Nicola Low

Go directly to the evidence database

Living evidence collection

Evidence informs guidance and public health decisions. In disease outbreaks, evidence is often scarce but accumulates rapidly. We need solutions to keep track of the emerging evidence. One of these solutions was suggested by Elliot et al.: the living systematic review. A review that is updated as soon as new information becomes available.

On this website, we explain how we set up a Living Systematic Review that can:

Living systematic reviews & living evidence

In our 2018 paper (Counotte et al.), we describe the workflow of conducting a living systematic review.

lsr workflow

We start by collecting data from different data sources. Here, we describe how to get references from medRxiv, bioRxiv and PubMed. We also include information from EMBASE via Ovid, but are we are currently not at liberty to share our methods.

Once we have clean reference data from the different sources, we perform deduplication. These deduplicated data are imported into a central database, where screening takes place.

Current version of the data

Here you find the most current version of the reference data. This is the same data that is available through (the shiny app). An preliminary version of annotated ‘pre-screened’ data is available on the github.

Formatting references

Here you find some generic solutions to handle citation data between different formats (our format, RIS, BibTex, and EndNote).

Contact information

For additional questions email: michel.counotte[at]


Funding acquisition: Prof. Nicola Low

Funded by the SNF


If you use our dataset, please cite it:

Download RIS citation

   author = {COVID-19 Open Access Project},
   title = {Living Evidence on COVID-19},
   url = {},
   year = {2020},
   type = {Web Page}